Very Funny Vaccination Video. I Got Mine!!

It’s Vaccination Day! – “For The First Time In Forever” Frozen Parody Video The Funniest by Far!!

This video made me smile ;> I am FREE and am starting to return to my pre-pandemic life!! I know exactly how it feels. I was fully vaccinated on March 5 and am waiting for more friends to be vaccinated so we can get together inside without masks!! Eating outside is tough when it is cold or rainy.


If you are fully vaccinated, you know what this is like. Well… maybe just singing and jumping in your mind :> If not vaccinated yet, this is what will be coming.

If nothing else, you won’t have to worry about getting Covid and going to the hospital and maybe dying. Or, won’t get Long Covid (aka becoming a Long Hauler) and be chronically sick for months, which can happen to anyone of any age or health status. Estimated 20-30% of those who get Covid get it. Many never went to the doctor and recovered quickly. The long Covid symptoms showed up later. Some that were infected last March still have significant problems

Covid News Update and What it Means for You

Note to readers: As of Feb. 28, 2021 I am no longer updating this blog on a regular basis. Vaccines are available. Scientists and the CDC can speak out now.

Popular posts on this blog:

On March 5, 2021, I was fully vaccinated. My life has changed.

Before that day I worked at home and seldom left except to go to grocery store or to my office about once a week.

Continue reading “Covid News Update and What it Means for You”

How to use this Covid blog

To find what you want, use the search box on the upper right. On the right, use Categories and a list of the most recent posts. To get the posts when they are posted, subscribe to the blog via email on the right. I regularly update the posts and include the date updated.

What is on this blog?

Continue reading “How to use this Covid blog”

About Ann O’Rourke, the author of this blog

Ann O’Rourke has a science background (college, labs) plus has been a writer and publisher since 1992, and a self-employed real estate appraiser since 1986. I have two appraisal newsletters, where I started writing about Covid in February 2000.

My first job after college (studied biology and chemistry) in 1966 was in a toxicology lab. I worked in other labs plus worked for 5 years at a biotech company. In both science and appraising, you are trained to be objective and analyze the data. You look for the truth. That is also how I write about Covid-19.

I was compelled to write about Covid-19. I wanted to help people. I enjoy writing it but will be glad when the pandemic is over and I get my life back. I spent 2-3 days a week writing it plus writing my appraisal newsletters. Fortunately, I don’t have to do this any longer as scientists, and the CDC are free to speak.

Continue reading “About Ann O’Rourke, the author of this blog”

Where to purchase non-counterfeit N95 masks from small U.S. manufacturers

Counterfeit N95 masks manufactured in China have been a problem since May. The market is flooded with them now, including Amazon. Millions of counterfeit N95 masks were purchased by 5 states. I don’t know if they checked the FDA EUA (Emergency Use Authorization) list or the CDCs list of NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) approved manufacturers to see if they were legitimate before purchasing them. 

N95 Face masks I recently purchased

I purchased NIOSH approved N95 masks, without valves, from one of the manufacturers in this article. I will be using them instead of my KN94 and KN95 masks when I need more protection.

I purchased them from Beilcor and received the masks within a week. The mask I purchased, “201”, had “behind the head” loops, which make the masks fit better than ear loops but only had one size. The masks were “softer” and much more comfortable than my old N95 masks. Other models were out of stock. There were over 100 reviews. None were negative but had some useful comments.

Another manufacturer, Demetech, had 2 sizes of masks in two styles, cupped and folding. I plan on trying them as I liked the folding KN95 masks as they are more convenient as I take my mask off and on.

N95 MASK

At the same time, small manufacturers can’t sell their inventory due to the “ingrained purchasing habits of hospital systems, medical supply distributors and state governments”. Can’t Find an N95 Mask? This Company Has 30 Million That It Can’t Sell. I have been reading about this problem since May.

What is NOISH?

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. The N95 masks in this post are approved and regulated by NIOSH and have been in use for decades. About NIOSH from CDC website.

Relevant links from This Blog – lots of detailed information

KN94 and KN95 masks – my experience

Continue reading “Where to purchase non-counterfeit N95 masks from small U.S. manufacturers”

Mayo Clinic Vaccine Q&As

2-10-21 As new COVID-19 variants spread and more people are vaccinated for COVID-19, people have more questions about COVID-19 vaccines. Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic’s Vaccine Research Group, says that’s understandable with new information released every day. Friendly and very understandable.

For instance, people are wondering what type of medications they can take if they’re being vaccinated for COVID-19. There are also concerns about whether a person who has been vaccinated for COVID-19 can transmit the virus. And some are asking why they need to wait 14 days, before and after being vaccinated for COVID-19 vaccine, if they are scheduled to be given a different vaccine, such as a shingles vaccine.

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland answers these questions and a variety of other listener questions.

Links to posts on this blog

Coronavirus Variants – What They Mean

A very good speaker you can understand with practical examples. Includes timed topics so you can find what you want to learn more about. 2-8-21 Video 36 minutes.

2021 has brought news of emerging SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants that increase transmissibility. Will they diminish vaccine efficacy and lead us to lose pandemic control? University of Michigan’s Adam Lauring, MD, Ph.D., a molecular virologist who uses evolutionary theory to study viral transmission and pathogenesis, joins JAMA’s Q&A series to explain the variants and what they mean for public health. Recorded February 4, 2021.

Related article Genetic Variants of SARS-CoV-2—What Do They Mean? Technical but understandable. Many details. Co-written by Dr. Lauring

Timed topics discussed in this interview:

Continue reading “Coronavirus Variants – What They Mean”

How the NFL kept its players and staff safe from Covid

Note: Attendees at Super Bowl on February 7, 2021 were given KN95 masks. Updated 2-10-21

The NFL tested everyone, every day, and did genetic sequencing to see how people got infected. They worked with the CDC to find out what they needed to do, how to get the data and how implement it. Face Masks were extremely important.

Playing was safe. Training was less safe (players stood around). Eating together was risky as face masks must be removed.

Face Masks were key. The CDC report is relevant for everyone, whether you play team sports or not. I play pickleball doubles so this information is relevant to me as well as to others who play team sports.

Where to get more information

Read more about it and watch a 4 minute video How playing it safe allowed the NFL – and the rest of us – to have a Super Bowl 2-5-21 Sanjay Gupta, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent (neuro surgeon) interviews NFL Chief Medical Officer, Dr. Allen Sills (orthopedic surgeon).

Listen to the full 16 minute podcast interview: A Pandemic Superbowl Fascinating, behind the scenes, interview.

Good story about how they did physical movement tracing and comments about the game. What the NFL did to keep Covid-19 off the field during the Super Bowl Masks, distancing, testing, and proximity sensors: The NFL’s Covid-19 playbook, explained. 2-8-21

The best information about team sports and Covid that I have heard or read!!

Comments below on who wore face masks at the Super Bowl

Continue reading “How the NFL kept its players and staff safe from Covid”

KN94, KN95 and Elastomeric Respirators: What and Where to Buy

Updated 2-17-21Where to purchase non-counterfeit N95 masks from small U.S. manufacturers February 17, 2021

More kN95 masks are counterfeit. Be Careful what you buy. Better to have a cloth or surgical mask that an fake n95 that does nothing!! Use the link above.

Another post on this blog was done the same time as this post . Surgical and Cloth Face Masks – What to Buy and Where to Purchase February 4, 2021

Updated 2-10-21 The only regulated face masks are surgical, n95, and elastomeric respirators. They are regulated by the FDC and NIOSH. There is lots of information on using the masks, safety, and lists of approved masks. There are no regulations for any other type of face masks.

It’s really the Wild West out there,” said Joseph Allen, associate professor and director of the Healthy Buildings program at Harvard University’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health. “We’re a year into this pandemic. It shouldn’t take hours and hours for a consumer to try and figure out what’s a decent mask,” he said.

I spent a lot of time trying to find information on what face masks to buy and where to buy them. Cloth mask information was not too difficult to find. KN94 and KN95 information was not clear.

Assume that any n95 mask in a store or online is counterfeit except Where to purchase non-counterfeit N95 masks from small U.S. manufacturers February 17, 2021

Finding the specific face mask you want on Amazon is very difficult without the product’s exact full name. When you get the name, use google to give you the exact link to amazon. There are too many face masks available online.

There is still a shortage of n95 masks after almost a year. They are only available to health care workers and are purchased through medical supply companies that do not sell to consumers. President Biden wants to get more masks for healthcare workers. Maybe someday they will be available to everyone else so we can buy the “Gold Standard” for maximum protection from the virus.

Continue reading “KN94, KN95 and Elastomeric Respirators: What and Where to Buy”

Surgical and Cloth Face Masks – What to Buy and Where to Purchase

This is the best cloth mask I have used, with all the features I want:

Bespoke Face Mask – Very good. Available at Kohls store or online.

Has all my criteria:
– Bendable nose bar
– Adjustable elastic ear loops
– 3 layer
– Built in filter lining (E-PTFE, similar to n95)

– 2 sizes: S/M, L/XL. Also has children size masks.
– Flap above the nose keep glasses from fogging (the best anti fogging in any masks I used.)

They are available from Kohls in store or online. $10 list price each but often on sale. Online ordering: Kohls requires a minimum $75 purchase for free shipping. Otherwise shipping cost is $8.95. Comes in many colors. If you order online there is free delivery to a local store. I ordered six black masks for $30. They were brought to my car in the parking spot for pickup about a week later.

In my local store there are limited selections of Children and Large/Extra Large. The big surge in buying masks was last year. Their market is young women and girls who prefer the “flowery” colored masks.

If you google bespoke face masks, the link for Kohls comes up. Other links show also, but I don’t know if they are for the face masks. Direct link to Kohls.

A friend bought these at Kohls while she was shopping for clothes and told me about them. Word of mouth works again!!

The difference between cloth and n95 masks

Cloth masks are woven and lets particles though. N95 masks are not woven and “trap” the virus particles. The differences between Cloth and n95 masks . Excellent animation . Only 5 minutes long.

With these animations, you can see how cotton and n95 mask filtering works. For example, you can see the smallest particles being bounced around by air molecules in a random zig-zag pattern, increasing the time they spend in the fiber forest and their chances of getting captured.

Assume that any n95 mask in a store or online is counterfeit except Where to purchase non-counterfeit N95 masks from small U.S. manufacturers February 17, 2021

Updated 2-11-21 I am very worried about the new variants and am upgrading my face masks. At least two of the variants have been found in the Bay Area, where I live. The new United Kingdom virus variant, B.1.1.7, is expected to increase our risk of getting an infection by 50% or more by the end of March, per the CDC. We can see our future by looking at what is going in the U.K. The new South African variant,B.1.351, may be even more contagious. Current vaccines may not work well on it. You may need to upgrade your masks. Surgical and cloth face masks – what to buy and where to purchase is very important.

Another post on this blog was done at the same time as this post. KN94, KN95, and Elastomeric Respirators: What and Where to Buy February 4, 2021

NOTE: At the Super Bowl game February 7, 2021, the attendees wore KN95 masks. How playing it safe allowed the NFL – and the rest of us – to have a Super Bowl4 minute video and a story about how they did it with the help of the CDC. Very, very interesting including what was risk and what was safe with lots of data from daily resting and genetic sequencing. Relevant for many sports.

Below is information on cloth and surgical masks and where to purchase them.

Continue reading “Surgical and Cloth Face Masks – What to Buy and Where to Purchase”

Protect yourself from the new Variants

How to protect yourself from the new coronavirus strains Video 6 minutes
1-28-21 Two of my favorite experts: Dr. Linsey Marr at Virginia Tech is an expert on airborne transmission. Erin Bromage, PhD is a Comparative Immunologist and Professor of Biology (specializing in Immunology.

Lots of good tips on how to get better masks. There is a big difference between the quality of the mask being worn and the ability to filter out the aerosols. The goal is Protect yourself from the new Variants.

Full transcript and audio

Related posts from this blog

Fauci on new vaccines and variants 1-29-21

Fauci on the efficacy of new vaccines and preparing for coronavirus variants 6 min. 34 seconds 1-29-21

The drive to get more coronavirus vaccines into more arms is gaining momentum, with two new COVID vaccines possibly accelerating the effort. Dr. Anthony Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the NIH and a top adviser to President Biden on the pandemic, joins Judy Woodruff to discuss the efficacy of the new vaccines and preparing for the virus variants.

Full transcript and Audio

Links to related posts on this blog

Should you wear two face masks?

Virus surges and more transmissible variants can significantly increase our risk of infection. Many experts are recommending wearing both a cloth and a surgical mask. Unfortunately, there is still a shortage of n95 masks, the “gold standard” for protection, with too many counterfeit masks.

Newer post with with lots of info and tips. Surgical and Cloth Face Masks – What to Buy and Where to Purchase February 4, 2021

Cloth mask on top. Surgical mask underneath.

Wearing two masks has become a hot topic since President Biden’s inauguration on January 20, 2021. The Poet Laureate, a young woman, wore two masks. Pete Buttigieg and his husband both wore cloth masks over white surgical masks.

The problem with surgical masks is that they are not made to fit well around your face, especially on the sides,nose and mouth. Too much air goes in and out. They are designed to keep patients safe from nurses and doctors who are infected.  

Cloth face masks can fit very well as they are very flexible, can fit closely, and are easy to find.

What are experts saying?

Continue reading “Should you wear two face masks?”

Fauci Finally Free to Speak When and Where He Wants!

Dr. Anthony Fauci’s First Press Briefing ,January 20, 2021, at the White House one day after President Joe Biden’s inauguration, . Fauci speaks for the first 20 minutes on the state of the pandemic and vaccines with some Q&A. He is President Biden’s Chief Medical Advisor for the Pandemic.

Podcast of Fauci’s original interview with New York Times 35 minutes 1-26-21

Two good articles:
Fauci on What Working for Trump Was Really Like 1-24-21
Fauci On The Biden Administration’s COVID-19 Strategy
article and 11 minute audio – 1-22-21

Below this video are excerpts from Rachel Maddow’s interview 1-23-21

Full transcript of Press Briefing Fauci speaks for first 20 minutes.

Fauci on Rachel Maddow show January 23, 2021 Below are excerpts

Continue reading “Fauci Finally Free to Speak When and Where He Wants!”

What is happening now, and what needs to be done with vaccine rollout?

PBS Newshour 8 minutes. President Biden says we need a wartime approach to the pandemic? When can we get vaccinated? I got my first shot on January 21 – Moderna. I was very, very lucky, and feel some survivor guilt that I got mine ahead of people a lot older and sicker.

To look a little deeper at the Biden administration’s plan for the pandemic and just how steep a hill it has to climb, I’m joined now by Dr. Michael Osterholm. He runs the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota, and he recently served on the Biden team’s Coronavirus Advisory Board.

Link to full transcript and audio

I have been listening to Dr. Osterholm’s weekly podcast, The Osterholm Update Covid-19, since soon after it started in March 2020. He speaks to the audience very personally and is understandable. Focuses on current topics. About 1 hour each.

Links to my blog posts

Vaccine distribution problems – companies that are helping

As we all know now, getting the vaccine into people’s arms is a major problem. Plus, no one seems to know where the current vaccine shots are located, when more vaccines are coming, etc. The states and counties are in charge but have been inadequately funded for years and have major problems. I have been writing about this since September when the first proposal was published.

With major logistical challenges, companies face a bottleneck in vaccine distribution PBS Newshour 7 minutes. What some companies are already doing to avoid a bottleneck in production and delivery. Very interesting!!

Link for full transcript and audio

The pace of vaccinations in the U.S. is failing to meet expectations, in part due to inadequate production and supply. But President Biden is planning to invoke the federal Defense Production Act to ensure companies, manufacturers, and states get what they need. Miles O’Brien reports on what some companies are already doing to avoid a bottleneck in production and delivery.

What one of the companies in this video (SiO2 Materials Science in Auburn, Alabama) is doing.

Continue reading “Vaccine distribution problems – companies that are helping”

Mayo Clinic What is happening now – Vaccine Rollout, Variants, and much more. 1-20-21

Topics include the rollout, transmission and herd immunity, as well as fertility issues related to COVID-19, survivor brain fog and more.

Good, understandable speaker. 32 minutes. Recorded 1-18-21

The distribution kinks for COVID-19 vaccines are getting ironed out, says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic’s Vaccine Research Group.

“It’s a logistics nightmare, but now you’re seeing a plan to administer 1 million doses a day and I think that’s very achievable,” says Dr. Poland. “And the production of the vaccine is just going to accelerate.”

I am hearing more and more of the experts I rely on, including Dr. Fauci, say that this will happen.

Links to my other related blog posts

Anyone, of any age, can become a Long Hauler with Covid symptoms that last for months

You recovered from Covid at home and did not go to the hospital, but it has damaged your body. You are sick for months. Medical professionals don’t know much about how to help you. Anyone, of any age, can become a Covid Long Hauler.

1-13-21 PBS Newshour 13 minutes This video is about people in their 20s and their struggle to get help and their persistent symptoms. 

Medical community scrambles to understand COVID-19 ‘long haulers’
Full transcript and audio

For lots more information and another excellent video see my blog post Covid Long Haulers – Affects All Ages January 1, 2021 Discusses the details of what is happening. Excerpts from that post below.

Any person, of any age, who gets Covid can become a long hauler. Often long haulers don’t go to the hospital as they don’t feel very sick. The symptoms start later.

Long haulers test negative for SARS-CoV-2. The damage has been done, and there is nowhere for the virus to infect, and it is gone from our bodies.

Covid travels through our bodies in our blood vessels and can significantly affect many parts of the body, including the brain, heart, liver, etc., and can cause death.

Lots more information on symptoms, long term effects on society from disabled persons, why medical professionals took so long to recognize it as physical and not “just in your head”, etc.

Links to posts in this blog

Vaccine Rollout – States Vary Widely, From a Big Mess to Few Problems Updated 1-22-21

I wrote this post on December 26, 2020, when the CDC released its proposal for vaccine distribution – When can you get a Covid vaccination? Your state decides.

There is a conflict between older people who are much more likely to die and essential workers of all ages who are exposed to the virus when working. The CDC included both groups in each phase, with 75+ given priority over 65+ to 74. Risk increases dramatically as you get older. See the table below.

Opening vaccinations on January 13 to all 65+ persons instead of 75+ was a very big mistake in many California counties and in other states. Essential workers are not included.

My Personal experience getting an appointment (Updated 1-22-21)

Continue reading “Vaccine Rollout – States Vary Widely, From a Big Mess to Few Problems Updated 1-22-21”

How To Judge 6 ft. Physical Distance – What We All Need!!

“Everyone I interviewed for this article has observed that keeping 6 feet from others is definitely a challenge.” Now I don’t feel so bad. The best tips I have ever seen on this Very Important Topic! 4 minute Video

Humans are social animals. We crave getting close together. Overcoming habits you’ve always done since you were a child is very difficult.

Face It! You’re Bad At Judging Physical Distance. Here’s How To Do It Link to article.

Links in this blog

Vaccination: How Does Your State Plan Compare To Other States?

12-13-21 THE INFORMATION BELOW MAY BE OUT OF DATE FOR YOUR STATE

More info at Covid News Update and What it Means for You UPDATED daily about vaccination rollout issues.

SOME STATES ARE FIRST VACCINATING 65+ OR 75+ THEN 65+. CALIFORNIA JUST WENT TO 65+ STARTING 1-13-20. They are prioritized over essential workers due to the surges and virus new mutations.

A new analysis examines the different approaches states are taking to manage the limited initial supply of COVID-19 vaccines and balance the desire to vaccinate those at greatest risk first with the need to ensure a fast and effective statewide vaccination effort.

Based on a review of state vaccination plans, the analysis finds that states are increasingly departing from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s recommendations as they move through the first three phases of distribution (known as Phases 1a, 1b and 1c).

Overall State-by-State Data Reveals Range of Early Approaches to Managing “Vaccination Line” and Many States Departing from CDC Recommendations Source: KFF (Kaiser Family Foundation) a non-profit not affiliated with Kaiser Permanente HMO.

See what your state is doing compared to other states Details by state

The analysis concludes that identifying specific priority groups may more effectively target a limited supply of vaccines, but may also lead to greater difficulty in implementing vaccine distribution plans and make it harder to communicate those plans to the public. The growing variations across states suggest that a person’s place in the COVID-19 vaccine priority line will increasingly depend on where they live.

Virus Mutations – What You Need to Know

All viruses mutate. As a virus replicates, its genes undergo random “copying errors” (i.e. genetic mutations).  The more the virus spreads, the more mutations.

Variant is a known virus that has developed a “specific group of mutations” that causes the variant to behave differently than that of the strain it originated from.

1-29-21 Latest news on Variants and New Vaccines – Ex CDC Director Tom Friedman 13 minute Podcast. very good explanations.

1-20-21 Excellent podcast What You Need to Know About the Variants 49 minutes, but worth the time. The best variant interview I have ever heard. Understandable and very well done. “So-called UK and South African variants to virologist Angela Rasmussen and evolutionary biologist Paul Turner. You’ll get answers about what the variants mean for the vaccines, how they affect kids, how to adjust your behavior in response to them, and much more.” Plus lots of references.

1-18-21 Good article, These coronavirus variants are keeping scientists awake at night List of many variants being studied.

1-15-21 Good article from Washingon Post- CDC warns highly transmissible coronavirus variant to become dominant in U.S.

We are all worried about the SARS CoV-2 mutations, especially those that make it 50% or more transmissible. (This estimate seems to be going up almost every week.). All viruses mutate, including the flu viruses. The more a virus multiplies and spreads, the more errors in replication, making more variants. Virus Mutations – What You Need to Know

I listen to many podcasts, trying to find those that are not too basic or too technical. Below are four podcasts that I recommend. I preferred the first one and the last one. See which ones you like.

1-7-21 When the Virus Mutates. Coronavirus: Fact vs Fiction. 15 minutes.

The most understandable and practical explanation I have heard for what it means for you. One of my favorite podcasts, Coronavirus: Fact vs. Fiction with Dr. Sanjay Gupta, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent.

New variants of the coronavirus are circulating around the globe and causing some concern among experts. In particular, one variant, B.1.1.7, is more easily spread from one person to another.  This new variant has already been identified in several states in the US. To understand how this will affect the pandemic, CNN’s Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta speaks with virologist Angela Rasmussen. 


1-11-21 A Pandemic Update: The Variant and the Vaccine Rollout. 34 minutes (first 15 minutes on variants)

Very easy to understand. Non-technical speakers. Transcript and reference. Click here to read.

The first 15 minutes are about variants, with some discussion of other virus issues. The rest is about vaccine rollout issues. Some text discussion and references, including the estimate of about a 45% increase in transmission. From the New York Times The Daily Podcast. Virus Mutations – What You Need to Know

Understandable, non-technical speakers: Carl Zimmer, a science writer for The New York Times, and Abby Goodnough, a national health care correspondent for The  Times.

The two podcasts below are from Coronavirus (Covid-19) Q&A JAMA Network, one of my favorite Covid podcasts. The podcasts are physicians and the general public and are more technical than the two podcasts above.


1-8-21 Understanding the New SARS-CoV-2 Mutation Found in England

JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) 14 minutes Expert speaker, but understandable. The “big picture”.

The overall picture, what it means. Some technical terms but not too many. What to do now, for the public and clinicians.

Speaker Gregory Armstrong, MD, director of the Advanced Molecular Detection Program for the CDC, explains what is currently known about the new mutations of SARS-CoV-2. Topics include where it came from, why more transmissible,

2-14-19 Related article. Next-Generation Sequencing of Infectious Pathogens The speaker is one of the authors: Marta Gwinn, MD, MPH1; Duncan MacCannell, PhD2; Gregory L. Armstrong, MD2. Technical, but can help understand what the speaker is talking about. Virus Mutations – What You Need to Know

1-4-21 Understanding SARS-CoV-2 Genetic Variants


41 minutes Excellent understandable expert speaker. Adam Lauring, MD, Ph.D., from the University of Michigan Division of Infectious Diseases, an expert on RNA viruses’ evolutionary biology, explains the new genetic variants recently found in SARS-CoV-2 and their importance.

Technical speaker, but very good at explaining, using practical examples, why viruses mutate. Very interesting, how and why vaccines mutate.

For example, explains “founder” populations, where genes come from, using the first Native Americans, who crossed the Bering Strait to come to North America. The genes they had were passed on to descendants over many generations. A Covid example is someone (a founder) coming from England to the U.S. starting Covid to spread.

1-6-21 Related article discussing some of the topics in the podcast, but much more technical. It can help us understand the topics in more detail.: Genetic Variants of SARS-CoV-2—What Do They Mean? Written by the speaker and a co-author.

Latest Vaccine News From the Mayo Clinic 1-11-20

Excellent Q & As with an understandable expert that speaks conversationally and uses minimal technical terminology. Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast: Expert updates on COVID-19 vaccines. 30 minutes.

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A 30 minute podcast, Dr. Poland goes into detail about the COVID-19 vaccines, including the effect of mutations, “sterilizing immunity,” testing for antibodies after receiving the vaccine, the possibility of booster doses in the future, and much more.

Dr. Gregory Poland is an infectious disease expert and head of Mayo Clinic’s Vaccine Research Group.

More information here

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